Carl Jung in the Collected Works, Volume 9, talks about esoteric teachings. We can call them psychological teachings now.
The right way to remove psychopathological symptoms is to face the confusing music of the archetypes. But, it did not happen on the mass scale. Instead, based on the confessions of those few who experienced a hero journey, some narratives were developed that are much more beautiful and comprehensive.
Those traditional narratives can be grouped in the following categories:
As the attractiveness of the traditions faded after the Renaissance, the modern scientific ways to deal with psychopathology are:
Long time ago the primitive people projected inner events onto nature, and they thought that nature actually was that way. They had no idea about own projection, and believed that what they perceived was real physical events – solar, lunar, seasonal, stars, etc. The projections were very subjective and confusing, so over the years of transmission of the initial revelations different people distorted the original text and made it sound more comprehensive and easier to tell. Therefore, the old myths and fairytales were the constructs of the conscious elaboration, based on the initial images of the collective unconscious.
The most advance form of such narratives were the ruling Western and Eastern world religions. They developed own dogmatic symbols and rituals that were very beautiful and attractive.
The main idea of such narratives, rituals and symbols was to substitute a hero journey with the real archetypes by the less adventurous journey, which was still capable to give some sense of order to people, who experienced psychopathological symptoms, and reduce the devastating effect on their well-being. By following the established and polished over the centuries religious formula, the psyche was regulated externally and the healing was achieved, usually in the form of catharsis.
Modern man believes in materialism and science, and own superiority. As the alternatives to the traditions, there are numerous methods of psychotherapy and empirically discovered procedures that work, as well as clinical trials of the new drugs that are based on the neuroscience.
Also, now we have access to education in the form of self-help books, Internet articles, YouTube videos, movie industry, fitness, yoga, taichi, mindfulness, and drinking culture that can be used to reduce the symptoms.
The Spiritual Function of our consciousness is to differentiate things, make the unconscious conscious, and the mankind produced many traditional and modern means to deal with the split without affecting the Social Function, which became the supreme value of the civilization, business owners, and policy makers.
While the CIO focuses on IT Systems, the CTO role is to innovate with technology. Gartner developed a Hype Cycle Methodology for emerging technology that allows to discover the trends, and provide the governance structure on the enterprise level around adoption of disruptive technologies.
At the same time the CTO is evaluating the existing Technology Portfolio, and manages it in order to limit the duplication proliferation in terms of separate licenses for the same product or service, and diversity of products with the same functionality. It promotes cost saving and cost avoidance.
Technology also poses some risks. Every new product and vendor, including a supply chain, should go through the assessment process from accessibility, vendor support lifecycle, and cybersecurity viewpoints.
One way to manage all of these is by establishing an IT Asset Management capability. IT Infrastructure Library (ITIL) provides an example reference model. The idea is to define the lifecycle of the IT asset, and manage every change in an integrated manner.
To reach that goal several things should happen:
The enterprise should publish the IT Asset Management policy.
The ITAM solution platform should be selected and made operational.
All ITAM functions should use the same ITAM solution platform in order to avoid integration issues and data duplications.
All technology products should be standardized in terms of the naming convention and the vendor lifecycle. The idea is to make everyone in the organization to use the same shared vocabulary.
The Approved Technology List (the whitelist) should be established and published.
Every server and device should be continuously monitored for compliance with the Approved Technology List.
A popular ITAM solution platform is ServiceNow.
One way to standardize the product names is to use Flexera Normalize application. It allows to replace different variations of the names for the same product version with the only one. In that case the IT Asset Inventory will be clean from duplication.
The get the vendor product lifecycle data, Flexera Technopedia database offers the single point of reference. It relies on the standard names from Flexera Normalize.
One way to ensure that the organization has a mature ITAM capability is to place an IT Help Desk request. If you are an employee with the device given by the organization, the IT Help Desk should know what is the name of your device, and what is installed, and what licenses you have – at the current moment.
Usually the Technology Portfolio is managed as part of the Enterprise Architecture Portfolio. It allows to track which applications are using which technology, and which capabilities are using which applications.
Technology Insertion should come from the projects and from the emerging technology governance. One way to attract potential investments is to establish enterprise platforms for experimentation and pilots, where projects can play before they buy.
The idea is to define the Target State of Technology Portfolio, and gradually modernize existing applications toward it. The best way is to use Application Portfolio Management together with Technology Modernization and Data Management. A good example is a move to the cloud. If it is not well planned, the IT projects will create the same complexity in the cloud as it was before. The same with adoption of RPA or blockchain. The cost saving is not easy to get without cost modeling and strategic planning.
While Business is driving the needs for IT support, disruptive technologies also became the driver that challenge the traditional business processes and offer remarkable benefits to the organization, if applied correctly.
Previously we discussed the general structure of the psyche in Living between Worlds and some indicators of the split in Psychopathology. Now let’s take a look at the archetypes that create those indicators.
Carl Jung in the Collected Works, Volume 9, talks about the archetypes of the collective unconscious.
As Jim Hollis described, the archetype is the organizing function, that includes a cluster of energies, responsible for the specific type of a split, and a corresponding compensatory function.
Archetypes are the content of the collective unconscious, which are very old patterns of experience that every human goes through, unconsciously. They formed long time ago, and every person is born with them. This collective inheritance makes us human.
The way we can become aware of archetypes is by projection onto external things. When we are trying to perceive something, we always have to deal with projections, whether we know about it or not. Those projections reflect the psychic processes that are so deep in our psyche that we cannot easily differentiate them from our perception.
The psychopathological function provides plenty of examples of archetypal projections that distort our normal perception of reality, and our reactions. Loosing self-awareness, experiencing strange feelings, dreams, changes of energy level are the results of archetypal projections.
Even our normal social function is govern by the archetypes. Our language is based on them too. When we think, we think in the forms that are organized by the archetypes. Our insights are the archetypal projections.
Let’s discuss the following major archetypes:
The archetype of meaning
The archetype of transformation
The archetype of the shadow
The archetype of the anima / animus
The archetype of the Self
When we first approach the unconscious, we face the personal unconscious. This is a thin layer where our individual experiences that are repressed or forgotten are stored. It contains feeling-toned complexes that we encounter when we are tired or irritated. This layer is governed by the shadow archetype. Usually we experience shadow projections in terms like “the enemy” or something “bad”.
The next layer is anima (for men) / animus (for women). This is a beginning of the huge collective unconscious realm. It is not easy to get there, because our shadow as the door is on the way. The anima is a real “witch” that can really mess us up. At the same time the anima is the feeling of being alive, and true happiness.
The archetype of meaning defines the purpose to live, feeling connected to the real truth, getting an insight. We all seek this meaning. When we get it, we have this resonance feeling as the affirmation.
To get to the archetype of meaning, one has to invoke the archetype of transformation. This transformation pattern allows us to go through the shadow and anima to the archetype of the Self.
The archetype of the Self is “stopping the world” experience. Our projections and perceptions cease to exist. We have the numinous experience. This is called “the enlightenment”.
The whole discovery of these archetypes and going through the transformation process is called “individuation” or “a hero journey”. This process provides the healing of the split between the ego and the instincts, and eliminates the psychopathological symptoms (a “victory”).
While these concepts were defined and redefined using different terminology through the entire history of mankind, each person still has to discover them on one’s own to get practical understanding of them. We all are busy with our social function, and our system of education, including family, does not provide such a background. Therefore, we continue with what we got, mostly quietly working on our own symptoms, and getting things done regardless of the shortcomings of our consciousness.
In the Living between Worlds post we discussed the general structure of the psyche from the Jungian perspective. Now we will take a detailed look at the Psychopathology Function.
Nancy McWilliams published a second edition of her “Psychoanalytic Diagnosis” book, where she presented a modern psychoanalytic model of mental diseases, rendered as personality structures for the clinical therapy. This model is defined to help to decide on the method of therapy to apply in each case. In other words, the model actually describes the groups of methods rather than the personality types.
The main idea is that an individual has to go through a development process, and sometimes it does not go as planned. Depending on the stage of the development where the issue occurred, an individual manifests different symptoms.
There are three major personality structures:
Neurotic personality can be applied to a large group of people with minor emotional distress. They still have a high objective and rational capacity to function. While they might use primary defenses like yelling, they mostly rely on the mature secondary defenses under stress such as repression. Neurotics have a good sense of identity and consistency, can express their values, virtues, and shortcomings in a multi-dimensional manner. Also they have a solid sense of reality without major distortions. The major neurotic symptoms are anxiety and low self esteem. They seek therapy to reduce some repeating conflicts of their own making, and expand some capacities that they are lacking. Usually such symptoms indicate problems during the father stage of development.
Psychotic personality under stress have severe symptoms of hallucinations, delusions, illogical thinking, being paranoid and terrified. They use primary defenses such as denial, withdrawal, omnipotent control, primitive idealization, and extreme dissociation. The major symptom is their hostility. Psychotics have a problem with own identity up to questioning own existence. They are deeply confused who they are. They are not in touch with reality, and often go too far into magical thinking. They have issues with getting perspectives on their own psychological problems as they lack reflective thinking.
Borderline personality exhibit use of primary defenses under stress, but can change behavior when confronted. They have a confusion about own identity, but they know they exist. They have trouble of being tolerant and self-regulate, but can remain silent or provide one-dimensional answer. Usually they don’t want to change their personality. When they alone, they feel abandoned, but when they feel close to someone else, they panic of fear of losing total control, which drives others to feel exhausted. Usually such symptoms indicate problems during the mother stage of development.
While most of us can sometimes experience any of those symptoms, it is important to evaluate them from the long-term perspective, how repetitive and typical they are. Regardless of personality structure, such people usually live and work, have families, and are members of the community. Some of them attend psychotherapy sessions, some visit psychiatric wards, but most just live as best as they can.
It is important to remind that the severity of these psychopathological symptoms reflect the severity of the split between instincts and the ego. They are just indicators that the social function went too far off. People are getting stuck in impossible situations, but persist in old thinking. The unconscious is trying to heal such splits by sending those indicators, including changes in energy level, feelings, and dream imagery. This is the cost of civilization, its conventional morality, and still ongoing maturation of the consciousness.
The CIO position was defined around Information domain, but in practice the CIO became responsible for IT systems. The new attempt to get to the Information domain was introduced as a CDO position – Data focused. In reality, it all is together – data and IT systems, as well as cloud platforms.
The President’s Management Agenda (PMA) defined the CAP Goal 2 Leveraging Data as a Strategic Asset  as leverage data to grow the economy, increase the effectiveness of the Federal Government, facilitate oversight, and promote transparency. This goal is supported by the Federal Data Strategy , including Practice 6 Convey Insights from Data: Use a range of communication tools and techniques to effectively present insights from data to a broad set of audiences.
EA role is to develop a strategic plan, a target state, and a roadmap of IT projects. The target state should be cost effective, and reuse existing IT systems and cloud platforms, as well as consolidate multiple duplications.
There are many components in the Enterprise Data Management architecture.
First, EA needs to define the requirements for the executive dashboard, the KPIs. What kind of questions and answers stakeholders are looking for?
Based on that expected outcome and output, EA determines what are the data needs and BI capabilities needs. There are three temporal dimensions: the past (retrospective), the present (operational) and the future (predictive).
Second, EA defines data standards for the whole enterprise to follow. Those data standards should support the defined KPIs. For example, if the executive dashboard has a geographical aspect, then data standards should include geospatial data standards.
The biggest challenge is to establish a data stewardship culture. Every System Owner should have a training in data management, data modeling, and data analytics. They need to understand how data can help to solve the business problems, and why it is important to follow the data standards and data management plan for own IT system in order to achieve the enterprise data management goals.
When the data management culture is followed, then IT systems and databases need to be refactored to follow the data standards. In agile manner, it takes several increments and several releases in order to avoid breaking the dependencies.
When data is standardized, EA needs to establish an Enterprise Data Asset Catalog. Each data asset has to have just one authoritative data source. It takes time to discover different duplicates and consolidate them. EA discovers and documents data lineage in a CRUD matrix.
Every data asset needs to be categorized in terms of Business Objects. EA use bottom-up approach to document the existing standardized Physical Data Model, and then abstract it into Logical and Conceptual models. After that EA, based on the Business Capability Model, refines the data models using a top-down approach. These refined data categories are the final Business Objects that are used to tag the data assets in the Enterprise Data Asset Catalog.
The standardized and Data-model aligned data assets now can be fed into the Enterprise Data Warehouse (EDW) which is a Data Lake. If data is jammed into EDW without standardization or tagging, then it is very hard to make any sense out of it using BI tools. BI tools cannot do magic. They produce results based on the quality of data they have. Data scientists can try to cleanse and transform the data as much as they can, but if the organization does not follow the data standards, and data sources are not known, and data assets are not tagged, then the value of BI tools is very, very low.
As the CIO has its own office, own people, the same way the CDO must have its own people, like data scientists who know not just Python, but also modern data management concepts, including DAMA DMBOK, NIEM, and SOA. Data architects should follow the EA Enterprise Data Management Architecture as the overall vision of the target state, and every System Owner needs to report on the IT system alignment to the enterprise data standards, data sources used, and data assets registration in the Enterprise Data Catalog.
It is a long road, but no organization can afford to avoid it. Business, at the end, is its people, knowledge (data), and processes (IT systems).
As I wrote before, usually the film is scanned into digital files, so I do not treat analog photography differently from digital.
There are many reasons to digitize film, and one is to unify the post-production workflow, including backup.
So far I discovered the following approaches to scanning:
Let the photo lab to do it.
Use a dedicated film scanning device.
Scan at home using a scanner.
Take a picture of the film using a digital camera.
Before I just asked the lab to provide me the scans, and they asked the question which resolution do I need. Since I was new to film photography and scanning, I asked which resolution is the most popular. The answer was a medium res, $10 for 36 frames. In two days I had an email with the link to download my scans. Each JPG file had 2205 × 1470 pixels and around 1 MB size. The quality was good, and I was happy.
After watching some YouTube videos, I found out that people prefer scanning at home, and use scanners or digital cameras to get high-res files. One point was really interesting – to get a RAW image of the film frame. The RAW image means much more information to play with to get the best results possible.
Since I had my Canon DSLRs already, I tried the lenses I have already. The image of the frame was too small. I used a set of cheap close-up filters to boost macro capability, but distortion was too great to fix it in post. Then I ordered cheap macro tubes, and it did not work either.
Sigma 70mm f/2.8 EX DG Macro
There are two versions of this lens: the new Art version, and the previous, non-Art version. I was looking for something cheap, hence non-Art. Both lenses have a special flat design to take pictures of the prints and film.
Negative Lab Pro forum has a whole showcase of DSLR film scanning setup. People are very creative in ensuring that the light source is bright and even, the focus is sharp, and the rig is stable. There is no right or wrong way to do it.
I use Capture One tethering to take a picture.
There is no good solution for film conversion inside of Capture One yet. People use Negative Lab Pro plugin for Adobe Lightroom Classic, that is expensive and requires Adobe Creative subscription.
Capture One in Sessions uses a special folder called Selects, and has menu items and a keyboard shortcut to move a file from Capture folder to Selects folder.
Lightroom has a special flag called Pick and a keyboard shortcut to mark the file as Selected.
Task 3.4 Process Selected Images
This step is the most complicated, and can be expanded to the infinity.
The main idea is that the photographer before taking a picture has a visualization of the end result in mind. The camera cannot capture it exactly, and therefore, the captured image needs adjustments to reflect the original visualization.
Usually a camera has a low dynamic range, problems with the white balance, gives flat looking images that need some crop.
The assumption is that all the things that can be done right in the camera itself are done in the camera. The post is not for making an image, just for the modest corrections.
Lightroom Classic has a whole marketplace of presets and plugins, Capture One not so much.
Capture Pro has a built in Instagram optimized export recipe (preset). The exported files are saved in a separate Output folder.
Lightroom has also some Export presets.
Task 3.6 Backup Processed and Exported Images
In this case not only files need to be copied, but also a Catalog backup needs to be done, because all the changes to the RAW file are preserved in the Catalog or Session file only.
Capture One Catalog allows to import Sessions, so all the adjustments can be saved as one backup. This is how the backup folder looks like after being created by Capture One or Lightroom Classic. Usually it takes less space than when you copy the entire catalog manually.
That’s the major steps that I would take for any film or digital photography. The mindset and concepts should be the same regardless of the gear or software. The idea of the workflow is to stop thinking about the post-production steps, but rather free yourself to focus on what matters – the image itself.
Information Technology (IT) became an inseparable part of our daily life, at work and at home. We know that at this point our devices and software are “hybrids” of the traditional algorithms and re-emerging Artificial Intelligence (AI).
In IT Architecture field we talk mostly about component-based architecture or service-oriented architecture (SOA). We assume that we are talking about software only, and use the same old hardware architecture.
While discussing AI, we finally talking about modeling our brain functioning. There are latest research and publications, cutting edge machine learning algorithms and quantum computing. It’s a bright future like Tesla and SpaceX.
So, what is that about? It’s about our collective cognitive dissonance.
We are still using the same old Turing machine from 1936. All attempts to move to something different had failed. The modern CPU is basically implements the Turing machine concept. We still running Assembler code under the hood. Our chips are made of simple logical elements.
What we had done is added several layers of abstraction to hide our primitive basic understanding of the reality.
We had the cognitive psychology model. Our brain is a set of procedures. All we need to do is to replicate them in C, Pascal, or Cobol.
Since the complexity of the programs increased to the level of difficulty to manage the code, we moved to the object-oriented model. So, a program is a replication of objects (people), who politely asks each other to provide some services, and keep their know-how and data to themselves (black boxes).
And the next level of complexity was solved by modularization into separate components with tight cohesion and loose coupling.
And then we distributed components and called them “services”.
What is the point here? The Computer Science started from the modeling of the language as logic, then cognitive psychology came up with the procedures as algorithms, and eventually the rest was purely complexity management regardless of logic or psychology or neuroscience. The model behind hardware became irrelevant, because the programming models were so easy to change to the point of the paradigm shift for the system and software architectures, and developer mindset.
IT is a mess of many different models.
Why this is important? Because it helps to reflect what we can think as humans in psychological modeling terms.
Let’s take a look at the Business Architecture.
What we see is Departments, Lines of Businesses, Offices that deliver products. It sounds like component-based architecture.
Later we started to see a shift toward business services. It makes sense, SOA.
What a business component or a service does called a business process. Should we call it SOP – Standard Operating Procedure? Or a workflow?
That’s it. An IT procedure implements a business procedure – a basic cognitive psychology model for IT – and for business. Not much of a difference.
Now, Enterprise Architecture aligns Business and IT. Which psychological model should we use to resolve the mix of the different models and make it psychologically easy for leadership, architects, and developers to understand, perform the analysis, and design new business-IT operating environments?
Archimate modeling language, as the only EA-specific standard, operates in SOA terminology. We have a Business Service, which is realized via an Application Service, and supported by a Technology Service. There are no systems, no components, no offices with scenic windows. SOA is well-suited for cloud computing models such as SaaS, PaaS, and IaaS. ITIL promotes IT Service Catalog. This is a beautiful abstraction applied consistently from end to end.
Do people usually think that way? In general I use a phone, not phone services, I use a computer, not computer services, I use a stove, not stove services. People naturally think in terms of tangible things they can see and touch. A service is an abstraction, not a thing – one cannot see it or touch it. Hence components, capabilities, offices. It is funny that business architecture is actually catching up with the more advanced IT models.
There is an article that talks about how these IT models influence how people think and behave. We are a part of this new abstract virtual world now, and we are getting confused by the changing or mixed-up psychological models which are not natural for humans. The same people get to work, and get to manage, analyze and design business and IT. The same is happening with the management theories, which are stuck in-between of micromanagement and delegation to agile. By the way, brainstorming as the daily management model is a way to admit a failure of the existing models.
A good example is Leica M6 film camera. The psychological concept behind it is so simple that users move beyond the camera to discuss the topics of composition, contrast of the image-making. And when Leica moved to the digital era, it preserved the same concepts in Leica M10 and Leica Q, while many, many other companies piled up new models into the cramped digital camera features to the point of total shift of the conversation toward the gear itself, not the image-making.
This is a problem space.
Our business models and IT models went beyond our natural psychological models into an artificial, unnatural, and hard to understand “cultural” “thing”. It needs a clean up.
Psychology should define what is the natural, simple, and easy way to understand the world. Business, management, and IT fields should follow those concepts, not to drive them. The new humanistic psychological model, not neuroscientific cybernetical materialism, is the only way to replace the layers and layers of abstractions with the new clean and simple foundation.
The author is Dr. James Hollis, or Jim, as we call him, is a well-known scholar in the field of Depth psychology. I met Jim personally during my tenure at the Jung Society of Washington, D.C.
This book is an introduction to the field of Depth psychology for general public. It is also a summary of Jim’s personal journey and his previous books.
The author tried to solve the following problems:
What are the causes of anxiety in our time
Why our social institutions are failing
What is Depth psychology, its principles and practices
What we can learn from literature and folklore
What are our tasks
What are the major concepts of Jungian psychology
Jim explained the major concepts in plain language and illustrated in different ways before giving the official terminology. It makes the complex material much more accessible.
The main problem was framed using the following concepts:
Instincts – the unconscious, inner guidance, primary phenomenon, the transcendent Other, the energy, the gods.
The ego – our consciousness, which contains the secondary, epiphenomenal, our subjective images of the phenomenon, our concepts and the worldview.
Anxiety – the psychopathological symptoms, the split, caused by the separation of the ego from the instincts.
Anxiety Treatment – an approach of Depth psychology to healing by reconnecting the ego to the instincts, based on the ideas of Carl Jung.
What are the causes of anxiety? The social function that focuses us on the outer values like power, wealth, status, and disregards inner guidance such as dreams. The idea here is to show that our modern civilization is moving in the wrong direction, and creating more, not less, anxiety in people.
In order to provide a solution to the problem, Jim described his view on the principles and practices of Deep psychology.
It’s not about what it’s about
What you see is a compensation for what you don’t see
All is metaphor
What are our tasks to live with dignity?
Recovery of personal authority
Seek meaning, not happiness
Ask more from ourselves, less from the Other
Become conscious of own Shadow
Acquire steadfastness and philosophic patience in the face of suffering in-between the worlds.
The author presented the holistic framework of the human psyche that explains how changes of energy, feelings, and dreams are connected to the social function and psychopathology.
Unfortunately, the book does not have any pictures or visualizations, and I, as a visual person, developed the following diagrams to understand the text better.
As we can see on Figure 1, we are the Ego, and we are focused on the demands of the social function: education, work, family, and society. Because those demands do not include our personal instincts, we are experiencing the psychopathological symptoms, i.e. anxiety. This anxiety actually prevents us from fulfilling the demands of the social function by isolating us into a severe personal crisis known as neurosis that requires a special treatment. The problem arises when the accessible and socially approved treatments such as pharmacology are not helpful, and we find ourselves in the stuck places. This is the pattern that Dr. Hollis called “the passage”, and makes a reference to his earlier book called “The middle passage: from misery to meaning in midlife”.
The better way to get unstuck is to include in the worldview the nature guidance such as energy level, feelings, dreams, and practice journaling, dreams interpretation, and active imagination. The warning from Dr. Hollis was to avoid what is called lucid dreaming when the Ego is reasserting itself rather than learn from what was presented.
The author presented the functions as different energies, and a concept of an archetype as a cluster of those energies.
The archetype is the organizing function, that includes a cluster of energies, responsible for the specific type of a split, and a corresponding compensatory function. It forces the subject to grow in order to overcome the limitation. The concept of energy follows the rule that nature does not waste it, which includes dreams.
Personally, I found it very insightful. A typical hero archetype described as something you need to do. Jim showed that an archetype is actually a result of getting into a victim mentality in the first place. Basically, a complex is a creation of an archetype. The wholeness can be broken in many ways, and the archetype is that resulting form that has both sides – the force that got us broken, and the hidden force that is formed to get us healed. Our mature spirituality and meaning seeking will lead us through a resonance system to the inner peace and contentment. The most useful reads for that practice are “Tracking the gods: the place of myth in modern life”, and “Living an examined life: wisdom for the second half of the journey”.
“Living between worlds” is a summary of Jim’s previous works, and serves as the introduction and a navigational framework for the reader. It is also a good reference with the list of the publications available to read next, and the index for terminology used.
I feel that this book is similar conceptually to the C.G. Jung’s work called “Man and his Symbols”. It was designed as a general introduction to the Analytical psychology, and has served me well before. At the same time, Jim’s book reminded me about another work of Carl Jung, “The undiscovered Self”, where Dr. Jung focused on the society at large.
I read Jim’s previous books as well as other authors, related to the topic of Depth psychology, and found his way of sharing ideas through a mythopoetic style quite distinctive. His practical advice often illustrated by the examples from his deep knowledge of literature, to show the universality of the archetypes across different times and cultures. Even now, at the age of 80, he is very active in his own analytic practice, gives interviews and lectures, and just shows up.
FEAF 2.0 provides the Consolidated Reference Model (CRM) for Portfolio Management and Shared Services which is used across the agencies, and provides consistency in investments planning and reporting. At the same time, CRM describes the business capabilities and services, data assets, IT systems, and technology platforms. Those building blocks are not explicitly prescribed by FEAF, and each non-DOD agency is trying to define them in a silo. DODAF, TOGAF and Archimate do provide metamodels to describe such building blocks.
Scott Bernard published an article “The Importance of Formal Documentation In Enterprise Architectures” in the Journal of Enterprise Architecture, August 2009, where he proposed a Metamodel of Artifact Relationships in the EA3 Cube Approach, but it was not included into the official FEAF 2.0.
HHS EA built own metamodel based on the changing guidance and initiatives from OMB which eventually become too cumbersome to maintain. Other agencies share the similar story.
The lack of the standard metamodel creates inconsistency and confusion not only in collecting and storing the EA data, but also in generating reports and getting value out of EA.
Here I am proposing a draft of the metamodel that includes FEAF CRM and common building blocks. It uses the concepts commonly used in CPIC and Cybersecurity, as well as OMB policy and CIO Council. I used Archimate as a modeling language and Archi as a modeling tool.
An organization has a set of goals. Each goal has a set of objectives.
To reach a goal and its objectives an organization needs to define a strategy. A strategy is an approach to change the architecture using different business capabilities and different initiatives.
Goals, objectives, strategies, capabilities, and initiatives define a Strategic Plan.
To implement a strategic plan, an organization needs to define the Current State of its architecture in terms of its Business, Data, Application, Infrastructure, Security, and Investment domain portfolios.
Next, an organization needs to gather requirements for the Future State. It includes a Strategic Plan, an analysis of the Current State, Department’s Business and IT (IRM) goals, objectives, and initiatives to align to.
In order to facilitate domain portfolio management, a set of FEAF Reference Models is applied to the Current State in order to identify duplications and gaps:
Business Reference Model (BRM)
Application Reference Model (ARM)
Data Reference Model (DRM)
Infrastructure Reference Model (IRM)
Security Reference Model (SRM)
After all requirements are identified, an organization develops a Vision of the Future State, and details in the same terms as the Currents State: Business, Data, Application, Infrastructure, and Security domain portfolios.
Next, the Gap Analysis determines the difference between the Future State and the Current State. Those gaps need to be addressed via projects (Projects Portfolio). Projects will be funded by Investments. The list of the proposed investments (Investment Portfolio) will be submitted to the Investment Review Board for approval.
To justify the proposed investments, an organization needs a business case and the architectural description, including a Transition Plan in terms of planned projects and the timeline.
The first step to establish EA in an org is to start managing portfolios.
Application Portfolio contains IT Systems, which are different from the cybersecurity “systems” also known as Security Authorization Boundary (a.k.a. ATO). ATO can have one or more IT Systems.
Application Portfolio enables Mission and Business Services to realize Business Capabilities of the agency.
Technology Portfolio contains Software Product Versions. Each Software Product Version has a vendor support Lifecycle and user licenses. Technology realizes IT Systems. An org can establish an approved list of its Technology Portfolio in order to limit duplicative technology proliferation (IT Technology Standard).
CRM describes different portfolios in order to identify duplication and gaps, and thus enables Portfolio Management, for examples, promoting reuse of the existing technology, and so, limit IT cost.
The shared metamodel across government agencies helps to mature further OCIO capability to manage and align IT to business by providing clarity and interoperability between various tools, helping to speed up time-to-market decision support data, and establishing a consistent common language for executives.